Drupal workshop preparatory notes

It was my privilege to handle drupal workshop and be part of software freedom day celebration (it is delayed though) at PESCE college Mandya. It was two days workshop (Oct 17th and 18th). On first day installation was carried out and second I introduced the basic administration using drupal.

The notes prepared for workshop is shared below. May not in ready to use format, however a drupalian should find it readable ūüėČ

Session notes

Installing lamp

Install drupal

min requirements

Lets start

What is CMS ? Famous CMSs
Definition : A content management system (CMS) is a computer application that allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface

CMSs have been available since the late 1990s.

CMSs are often used to run websites containing blogs, news, and shopping. Many corporate and marketing websites use CMSs. CMSs typically aim to avoid the need for hand coding, but may help it for specific elements or entire pages.

The content management system (CMS) has two elements:

Content management application (CMA) is the front-end user interface that allows a user, even with limited expertise, to add, modify and remove content from a Web site without the intervention of a Webmaster.
Content display application (CDA) compiles that information and updates the Web site.

So about drupal

Drupal is not the only CMSs.
There are 100s of CMSs available as free software and proprietary software.
wodpress , joomla and drupal ( all are comes under free sw category) come top of the list.
Drupal is powerful , the vast variety of module sets makes almost everything possible with drupal.
Drupal could handle complex scenarios in building a site.
Very active communities is other advantage with drupal.

How the name drupal ? A bit of history

back-end framework for at least 2.1% of all Web sites worldwide
more than 31,000 contributed modules

WhiteHouse.gov, MTV Europe, and The Economist are on Drupal

Why drupal ?



Drupal is getting easier, WordPress more sophisticated and Joomla offers both a CMS and a related Web development platform on which it can run.

Lets actually start now ..

Drupal file structure

You do not need to know what each files does necessarily, but four sections. These are needed to be able to install new modules or themes and upgrade your site. Let’s take a look at them one by one.


modules – to download modules https://www.drupal.org/project/project_module

themes – to download themes https://www.drupal.org/project/project_theme


Basic settings

Enabling clean URL

Lets login to drupal

*-Content management application
Index – This page shows you all available administration tasks for each module.
Flush cache –
Run cron –
Run updates
Drupal.org – Issues reported and are active.



*Setting site detail


1. Site Title
2. Email address

Lets start adding content

Configuring your first module

Configuring your fist theme

Creat your first article with content type Article
Content type

Creating About Us menu and adding Page article

Lets look at the arrangements of blocks

In Drupal, the boxes which can be made to appear in various regions of a Drupal website are called Blocks.
Blocks are similar to “widgets” in content management systems

Demonstrate block regions

Creating a block

The Drupal Views module allows you to organize and show your content to the world in almost any way you can think of. Over half a million Drupal sites report that they use the Views module. It’s that good.

Creating a custom block view
A block view will appear as a ‘block’ on your site, meaning it can be put into the sidebars, or any other region your theme supports.

Creating a page view
A page view is one that is accessible via URL meaning it can be linked to directly, and the view appears in the main content area.

Creating a page

Panel page
Panel pages can be used as landing pages. They have a URL path, accept arguments and can have menu entries.
Custom content
Custom content panes are basic HTML you enter that can be reused in all of your panels.

Context filtering in views
Setting visibility rules in panel

Enabling blog content type

Optional – Other modules
gallery formatter

Optional users and permission
Optional theme

Drupal tutorials

Digital Divide in India


The term ‚ÄėDivide'(meaning GAP) has a history as old as human civilization. The world has experienced several kinds of divides as the human civilization shaped up to what we are now. Divides in categories like Economic, gender, racial, caste etc.. are some of these categories which we have been encountering. Post digital revolution and followed by information age one more category got added to the list of divides, the digital divide. According to the wiki, a digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT). Digital divide varies with respect geography, caste, race, economic status, gender and physical ability in access to information through the Internet.

ICT penetration in India.

Effective deployment of ICT plays a major role in bridging the digital divide. India has emerged as global IT leader in less than 20 years opening wide opportunities of ICT development. However, they were focused only on few cities and states. Miniscule population in India got benefited out of it and the government failed to propagate the then booming IT effect to the whole nation or major parts of the country due to various reasons. Particularly rural areas were ignored in all manners where 70% of Indian population resides. According to telecom regulatory authority of India (TRAI), India‚Äôs ICT usage and access on a global scale have been ranked at 129 out of 166 countries. ‚ÄúIndia is categorized in the least connected countries group of 42 nations that fall within the low IDI (ICT Development Index) group.‚ÄĚ

Major challenges in front of gov raising India to 100 % ICT equipped

Electricity : In December 2011, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to frequent electricity. Over one-third of India’s rural population lacked electricity, as did 6% of the urban population. Of those who did have access to electricity in India, the supply was intermittent and unreliable

ICT Infrastructure: India has a large number of rural villages that do not have telephone connectivity. Rural Teledensity is 48.60% as of May 2015 where in national Teledensity is 79.67%. In the education sector, India has one of the lowest percentages of schools with ICT infrastructure, according to data compiled by the UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Internet penetration as on Dec 2014 was just 20.01% which way below the world average.

Affordability : Reduced cost of access enables households today to afford telephones and the Internet. What in the case of people who hardly make their income to afford food materials? As per government official records, he Indian government stated 21.9% of its population is below its official poverty limit. The actual figure may come close to 1/3rd of the entire population.

Socio-Economic factors : Indian society is diverse, each section got their own culture ,lifestyle, and language. India has 23 constitutionally recognized official languages. The hard fact of ICT deployment lies here. ICT should be made available in their own local languages for that language speaking people to take part in it , efforts are minimal in these areas, though. The caste system in India is another barrier, caste-based discrimination prevails very much in Indian society today also. The privileged section has already benefited the best of ICT programs in India. Government’s intervention is required to raise underprivileged to a better living condition and social status combined with growth on ICTs.

In general, government’s role is crucial for an effective ICT implementation. Gov has to reexamine the so far followed policies led to the uneven growth contributed to the widening digital divide directly or indirectly. The increase in corruption, the incompleteness of gov programs on time, negligence toward certain section or area etc. leave us far behind from the goal.

Successful Efforts to bridge digital divide in India

Amidst of all these challenges, several positive measures are being taken in India to bridge the digital divide. India during the last decade embarked on ICTs for development in a big way and sought to transform India into a Knowledge Society. According to IAMAI(Internet and Mobile Association of India) with the increase in smartphone sales, more and more users are accessing the Internet through mobile devices project the mobile internet user base to reach 314 million by 2017. There are number of studies have been already taken place in the area of the digital divide. Several hundreds of individuals and NGO groups are working on the ground to bridge the digital divide apart from many other gov run programs towards the same goal. Few successful projects are

The Kerala IT@School : Kerala IT@School is one of the best model in the work using ITC in education. the Project has remodeled conventional teaching methodologies in classrooms through the use of IT. The Project functions on Free Software platform. The project is being implemented in over 12,000 schools in the State of Kerala. An estimated 5 million students and 200,000 teachers are now part of this project, which has a network of 160 Master Trainers and 5600 School IT Co-ordinators statewide, who are school teachers themselves. The project also conducts specialized training for visually challenged teachers in the State. Usage of Free Software benefited Gov of Kerala running project within budget constraints. Since then, other Indian states like Karnataka, Gujarat, Assam, West Bengal and others have made open source a key part of their school education initiatives.

Identifying and Controlling Weeds OSCAR, India : The OSCAR( Open Source Simple Computer for Agriculture in Rural Areas) prototype of an application software for weed identification and control of the rice and wheat crop systems of the IGP has been successfully developed as FOSS and tested in various target groups in Bangladesh,India, Nepal and Pakistan. The use of FOSS to develop and implement OSCAR makes it possible to encourage contributions to it from agronomists, researchers, the student community and concerned development organizations in the region. With the deployment of OSCAR, farmers in the IGP will be able to better identify and control weeds in their paddy and wheat fields. An indirect impact of the project is the encouragement of local bodies and organizations to help themselves by building their capacities with resources from within their village leading to better resource management and contributing towards the decision-making capacity of the farmers on farming and other issues related to development.

Gyandoot Project: ICT Initiative in the district of¬† Dhar, Madhya Pradesh : Gyandoot, which means ‚ÄúPurveyor of Knowledge‚ÄĚ in Hindi, is a government-to-citizen, intranet-based service portal, implemented in the Dhar district of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India, in January 2000. The project was designed to extend the benefits of information technology to people in rural areas by directly linking the government and villagers through information kiosks. The kiosks provide access to a variety of government services, such as registration of complaints and submission of applications for the issuance of certificates and loans. Data on prices of agricultural crops in different markets are also available.

Role of Free Software in ICT

Several ICT projects implemented in India are mainly based on FOSS technologies due to following reason

Cost effective
No complication of license schemes. Can modify the programs according to the need
Community support.
More secure and robust.

Policy on Adoption of Open Source Software for Government of India is a milestone towards ICT development in India. As per the policy statement “Government of India shall endeavor to adopt Open Source Software in all   e-Governance   systems   implemented   by   various   Government organizations, as a preferred option in comparison to Closed Source Software (CSS). “ Developed economies mainly western countries realized the need of FOSS usage in critical areas and started implementing it years back. Promotion of FOSS technology indirectly benefits the local community to grow to form a sustainable support model.


Amidst of mammoth growth in IT sector and ITeS India far from satisfactory level in consumption of ICT results in the widening digital divide. Digital divide is flavored with India’s own cultural and social factors. Gov failed to address growing digital divide and it continues to grow. It is evident from the project like IT@School implemented in Kerala that effective coordination of governmental authorities, departments, and FOSS communities can yield the better result. The IT@School has made ripple effect in Kerala and ICT plays a major role in everyday life of people there. The recently announced digital India project gives more hope to the people of the country.




Breaking Barriers-A Compilation of Case Studies from Across the World

The Four Digital Divides by Kenneth Keniston and Deepak Kumar

Bridging digital divide: Efforts in India by Siriginidi Subba Rao

The future is Ours- An essay on Ambedkar Community Computer Center by G. Saraswathi with  V. Mani and A. Santosh[ http://slumdweller.wikispaces.com/file/view/the-future-is-ours-sen.pdf]

And of course all lot of wikipedia articles